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SHUTTER SPEED, APERTURE,
FOCAL LENGTH

 

APERTURE

higher number -> smaller opening -> less light ->more in focus -> greater DOF

lower number -> larger opening -> more light ->less in focus -> shallow DOF

 

f22
f16
f11
f8
f5.6
f4

less light <-----------------------------------------------------------------------> more light

greater depth of field <----------------------------------> shallow depth of field

more of image in focus <-------------------------------> less of image in focus

 

 

A number has HALF the amount of light as the next number LOWER
A number has TWICE the amount of light as the next number HIGHER

So:
f11 HAS HALF THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT AS f8
but
f11 HAS TWICE THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT AS f16

f16<f11<f8

(the place to adjust the aperture on a film camera is on the barrel of the lens)




 


SHUTTER SPEED


Shutter speeds are in fractions.
for example 250 actually means 1/250

LOW IS SLOW!!!!!!!!!

SLOWER THAN 60 USE A TRIPOD

1
2
4
8
15
30
60
125
250
500
1000

open more time <----------------------------------------------------> open less time

more light <----------------------------------------------------------------------> less light

shows motion (blurred) <-----------------------------------> stops motion (crisp)

 

A number has HALF the amount of light as the next number LOWER
A number has TWICE the amount of light as the next number HIGHER

So:
500 HAS HALF THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT AS 250
but
500 HAS TWICE THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT AS 1000

1000<500<250

(the place to adjust the shutter speed on the film camera is on the top dial)



 



FOCAL LENGTH


smaller angle/wider angle ---------------------------------------larger number/zoom/closer

17
24
37
50
100
170
250
1000
wide angle ------------------(human eye)--------------------------------------------------zoom/closer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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